Scientist from Stanford University invents “Fourier Slice Photography” and “Light Field Photography”. It gives the ability to focus an out-of-focus shot afterwards.
The article points out that especially microscopy and medicine are fascinated by its potentials. Taking pictures of cells and tissue and then gradually focussing in different depths. By focussing in increments you can even create a small “film” that allows you to travel inside the picture.
Or less technically: with this technique you don´t have to do 50 consecutive shots, say at a sports event, or kids birthday party. You just wait for the right moment, take one picture and then decide at your computer if you want the child, the player or the ball to be in focus.
So from one shot you can create many different pictures, which opens up totally new creative possibilities. The software can also simulate the effect of different lenses: show the picture as if it was taken with a wide angle lens or telephoto.